There is a wave of outrage over the internet about revelation that iPhones has a file with tracking information recording all the places it has been. How dare Apple track users of their products! I am afraid that this is a extremely naive attitude. The fact is that everybody is tracking you on iPhone and not only on a iPhone but on all smartphones and on many less than smart phones as well. Let me count the ways, starting off with the benign and moving to the egregious.
Firstly the carriers and handset makers collect data from phone to help improve their service. Last week we has a joint meeting of the SDForum Business Intelligence and Mobile SIGs on "Mobile Analytics". At that meeting Andrew Coward of CarrierIQ described how they embed their software in phones, usually at the carriers direction, to collect information that can be used to improve service. For example, he told us for example that it is quite normal for them to report to a carrier that their dropped call rate is 6% whereas the carrier's own engineers are telling management that their dropped call rate is 1%. They collect data on location so that the carrier knows where their users are using their phones from so that they can improve their service to that area.
In Europe, CDR laws require phone carriers to retain their Call Data Record (CDR) for all calls for a period of 1 or 2 years. The police can and do request information on all the calls made to or from a number to help with their enquiries into crime. While a CDR record does not usually contain specific location information, it can identify the cell tower and thus the approximate location of the caller. Police have successfully used location based CDR data to help with their investigations for well over a decade.
With the users permission, Google collects information from Android phones about their location. Google is the ultimate data collection company and I am always amazed at the creative ways they find for using that data. One Google service is the Traffic overlay on their Maps. This is derived from observing the change in location of Android phones. However, while Google says that they do not collect personally identifying information, they do need to distinguish between phones to make this application work, so they are tracking the movements of individuals, if only to provide the rest of us generic information on traffic flows. Google has plenty of other uses for this data. For example, they keep a database that locates every Wi-Fi hotspot is so that they can identify your location based on the Wi-Fi hotspot you using. Google can use data from Android phones to validate and update that database.
Mobile analytics and Apps is where the use of location based information starts to get interesting. Last year Flurry presented to the Business Intelligence SIG and we heard about their run in with Steve Jobs. You can read their press release to get the full story of what they did. In short Flurry has a free toolkit that developers install into their mobile Apps that collects information and sends the data back to Flurry. The developer can then access analytics reports about their app at the Flurry web site. However, Flurry retains the data that has been collected from the App, including location based data.
In January 2010, a couple of days before the iPad was announced, Flurry issued a press release saying that they saw a new Apple device that was was only being used in the Apple headquarters in Cupertino and gave some statistics on the number of different Apps that were being tested on this device. At this Steve Jobs blew his top and tried to get Flurry completely banned from iPhone Apps. Eventually Flurry and Apple settled their differences. The conclusion was that in the words of the iPhone developer agreement "The use of third party software in Your Application to collect and send Device Data to a third party for processing or analysis is expressly prohibited."
So lets parse this. Flurry is a company that has no direct relationship with the carriers, handset makers or the users of Apps, yet is is collecting data from all the Apps that it is included in. The data is available for use by the App developer and by Flurry. At the time of the iPad release they could identify that the device was different from all other devices and identify its location to within one set of buildings. Now, I am not trying to pick on Flurry specifically, there are several companies in this area. At the Business Intelligence SIG last week we heard from Apsalar, a recent start up in the same space, however, Flurry is the largest company that provides mobile analytics. Flurry estimates that they are included in up to 1 in 5 mobile Apps for the iPhone and Android. Because they are in so many Apps, they can provide aggregate data on all App usage.
The point of this is that we want location aware Apps, however we also want to preserve our privacy. As Apps are, these two goals are incompatible. To be location aware, the App has to know your location, and if the App knows your location, it can transmit that information back to the App developer or aggregator of analytics for the App developer. Thus they know where you are whether you want to or not. Android, has a profile that determines which information an App can access that is set when the App is installed. If it is allowed to access location information on installation, it can continue to do so until it is uninstalled.
Compared to what Apps know about what you are doing while you use the App, the location database that the iPhone is collecting seems to be a small matter. In fact it seems to be a good reason to limit the number of Apps that you can be running at any one time. At least if only one App is running then only one App knows where you are at any particular time.